Before initiating a new web project, selecting the proper web app architecture is critical for a project’s tech success. Your choice will determine how its elements and functionality will interact and the further logic of creating the application. 

In this post, I’ll explain what stands behind web application architecture, its working principles, the technologies required, and what types are there.  

Understanding the Concepts: What Web Application Architecture Is and How It Works

Web application architecture stands for a network of multiple components such as user interfaces, transaction processing, databases, and others. The main objective is to ensure that all interconnected elements operate correctly. All these components represent web application software structure.

But how do these elements work, and what are their functions? Let’s cover their synergy naming all the specificities of this process.

Web application architecture defines the networking between applications,  middleware systems, and databases so that several apps perform in tandem. For example, when a user types a website URL into a browser and hints ‘enter’, the server obtains a request from the browser. The server processes the input data and shows the needed web page. Most high-performance platforms with a modern website application structure carry out this process almost instantly, as no user wants to experience a time-intensive page loading. It’s worth mentioning that the script scrutinized by the browser may or may not have specific directions for the browser on how to react to a wide array of inputs. Hence, website app architecture entails utter sub-elements and external interchanges for the complete solution.

As for the working principles, system architecture for a web application comprises two parts operating simultaneously: client-side (frontend) and server-side (backend): 

  • Frontend stands for the visual part of the application visible for users. The client-side reacts to the users’ actions. The tech stack required: CSS, Javascript, HTML, etc.
  • The server-side handles apps’ business logic and processes HTTP requests. A backend side creation includes the following languages: PHP, C#, Java, Python, Javascript, etc.

For instance, when entering your credentials to register on a platform, you interact with the user-side. The backend is processing your data before access is provided. These two sides represent a web application architecture. 

The web app development flow determines the tasks the script performs according to the actions required to be made by the code. 

Layers of Web App Architecture

Now, let’s look at the typical layers of website application architecture.

Presentation layer

PL shows the user interface and makes user interaction more straightforward. It contains UI components that handle and display information for users. There are also user process elements that set up user interactions. PL gives all the needed data to the front end. Its objective is to receive input data, process users’ queries, transfer them to data service, and display the results.

Business logic layer

This layer is in charge of correct data exchange. BLL identifies the logic for business processes and rules. Logging in the platform is a sample of a business logic layer. Business logic layer is also called Domain Logic or Application Layer, which fulfills the processing of clients’ requests from the browser and points the ways of access to this information.

Data service layer

DSL transfers data operated by the Business logic layer to the Presentation layer. By sending the information processes by BLL to the Presentation layer, DSL defends the data of application web architecture by separating business logic from the user-side.

Data access layer

DAL facilitates access to data saved in persistent storages (e.g., binary XML file, etc.). This layer also processes CRUD operations: create, read, update, delete.   It is also called the persistence layer or storage, merged with the business layer. This way, the logic understands which database to apply to and streamlines the information received.

How to Create Web App Architecture 

Now, let’s briefly discuss the best solutions for web app structure designing. 

Web application architecture is composed of application components, middleware systems, and databases. In turn, app components divide into UI/UX components and structural ones. UI/UX web app structure components comprise dashboards, statistical data, layouts, notification elements, etc. These components are responsible for the external web page look and establish the base for customers’ interaction. Structural components relate to web app server architecture and the database server.

Here are the top three technologies for web app architecture development:


Java takes first place among the most popular technologies for building architecture for web apps. Its web app structure design offers a wealth of Java-based instruments. Therefore, this language can be applied to any scale app architecture since it allows for building a reliable and flexible structure for the long-term run.


Python is another widely used technology for web app architecture designing. Its script is made for server-side scripting. This tool is a good option for web developers who have recently started scripting with Python or are developing web apps architecture for the first time. Besides, Python provides various instruments for ongoing web application architecture support. Thanks to its motion nature and shortcodes, this tool is applicable for making prototypes. Furthermore, several Python frameworks can be employed for designing web app structures from scratch or merging different programming languages in one project.


Node.js is a technology solution offering to create web app software architecture that relies on model-view patterns, entailing MVC (model-view-controller), MVVM (model-view-view-model), and MVP (model-view-presenter). The capabilities of its advanced web app architecture patterns comprise script elements defining, configuration, and direction. In addition, Node.js employs an entity-relationship model of web project architecture diagram for data and script forming, breaking logic by modules, and deriving valuable insight from logs to guarantee the correctness of web app architecture development.

5 Types of Web App Architecture 

Web app architecture types vary depending on app logic distribution ways among the user-side and server-side. Let’s discuss the details of each type.

Single-Page App (SPA)

Single-page apps imply a website platform that displays all the required data when a user opens the page. The core advantage of SPAs is that no web pages are reloading. Traditionally,  single-page solutions are built under Java web app architecture design. Besides, many of its frameworks (e.g., Angular, React) are helpful for creating web app architecture of this type. The most prominent examples of SPAs are Slack, Facebook, and Gmail.

Multi-Page App (MPA)

Multi-page apps work great for large-scale website solutions like Amazon. MPAs solutions reload a web page to load or transfer data from/to a server via the clients’ browsers. eBay and Amazon are the most significant examples of MPAs.

Serverless Architecture

This type of architecture makes programmers utilize a cloud web application infrastructure from 3rd party providers like Amazon and Microsoft. To maintain web app network architecture on the Internet, programmers should direct server infrastructure, an operating system, and other server-related hosting operations. For instance, Amazon and Microsoft provide virtual servers that dynamically handle the distribution of machine reserves. This way, your web app will be able to cope with massive traffic spikes without performance failure.

Microservices Architecture

Microservices architecture allows software engineers to design a web application from a group of small services (unlike the monolithic option, which implies rewriting the whole code in case of one component change). Then, programmers can create and deploy each element separately. For example,  a microservice approach is widely used in social networking website development since such platforms contain multiple elements developers should interact with. Netflix, PayPal, and Spotify illustrate the microservices architecture logic.

Isomorphic Web Apps

An isomorphic type is an innovative approach to designing web application architecture. It stands for a JavaScript solution that can be employed both to the front and backend sides. First, the client loads an HTML, where the JavaScript app is transferred to the browser; then, the process is similar to the SPA logic.

Summing Up

The qualitative website application architecture will let you scale, modify, test, and debug your future web project along with efficient development process management.

Thank you to our guest author Yuliya Melnik! She is a technical writer at Cleveroad, a web and mobile app development company in Ukraine. She is passionate about innovative technologies that make the world a better place and loves creating content that evokes vivid emotions.

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